Agricultural tractor (colloquially a tractor) - a motor vehicle designed exclusively or mainly for agricultural purposes, regardless of whether it is allowed to use on public roads .
According to the road traffic law in Poland, an agricultural tractor is a motor vehicle designed to be used together with equipment for agricultural, forestry or horticultural work. The tractor can also be adapted to tow trailers and earthworks .
The maximum permissible speed of the agricultural tractor in traffic is 30 km / h (including the trailer). However, the permissible speed when the tractor transports the workers' team in the trailer can not exceed 20 km / h .
It is used to move vehicles, machines and devices that do not have their own drive (eg trailers), to drive machines and devices that do not have their own engine via a power take-off (PTO), a pulley (currently practically nonexistent) or external hydraulic connectors. Machines and devices cooperating with the tractor can be mounted using the three-point suspension system (TUZ), in most machines located at the rear of the machine, in modern machines it often also appears at the front. The agricultural tractor finds, as the name suggests, application primarily in agriculture, field and transport works, hence some of its characteristics, such as good properties of moving around the terrain, low unit pressure on soil, maneuverability and above all versatility.
Before the agricultural tractor was established, the cultivation work required the support of train animals, mainly horses, cattle and asses. Around the middle of the 19th century, the use of locomobiles, or steam train machines, began.
The first Polish diesel-driven tractor called the "tractor" left the Ursus factory in 1922, and the first constructed in the world diesel-powered tractor is a machine designed by American John Froehlich from 1892.
Depending on the chassis, a distinction is made between:
1. Wheeled tractors with fixed drive of one (rear) axle (2WD) - universal tractors with power up to 310 hp, most commonly found, are now also produced with an attached front axle drive (MFWD). The rear, continuously driven wheels have a clearly larger diameter.
2. Wheeled tractors with permanent drive of both axles (4WD) - usually heavy tractors, currently produced, achieve power from 50 to 600 HP. The tractor is controlled by means of steering steering of one or both axles, and in the heaviest machines by means of articulated steering.
3. Track tractors - tractors in which the chassis is tracked. Usually used for the heaviest works, most often found in wetlands and heavy soils. In the 70s-80s. tractors on steel tracks due to many disadvantages and limitations of use were practically supplanted by heavy wheeled tractors. Nowadays, with the great attention paid to the reduction of soil compaction, the idea of ??a tracked chassis based on tracks made of steel reinforced with indelible rubber is experiencing its renaissance. Caterpillar tractors currently reach up to 600 hp.
4. Half-track tractors - basically they are based on the idea of ??a wheeled tractor, but instead of wheels on one (semi-track tractors) or all axles, special tracked bogies are used. Such tractors combine the advantages of tracked and wheeled tractors.
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